# Introducing Roman Numbers To Children

Today, we’re going to embark on an exciting journey back in time to discover the world of Roman numbers. These are not just any numbers; they are an ancient system used by the Romans, full of mystery and intrigue. So, get ready to explore the Roman numeral system, understand a Roman numerals chart, and learn how Roman numbers are used in maths.

## Chapter 1: What are Roman Numbers?

Roman numbers were the number system used in ancient Rome. This system is different from the numbers we use today, which are called Arabic numerals. Roman numbers don’t use digits like 1, 2, 3; instead, they use letters from the Latin alphabet to represent numbers.

### The Basic Symbols

The Roman numeral system uses seven basic symbols:

I stands for 1

V stands for 5

X stands for 10

L stands for 50

C stands for 100

D stands for 500

M stands for 1000

 Number Roman Numeral Number Roman Numeral Number Roman Numeral Number Roman Numeral 1 I 26 XXVI 51 LI 76 LXXVI 2 II 27 XXVII 52 LII 77 LXXVII 3 III 28 XXVIII 53 LIII 78 LXXVIII 4 IV 29 XXIX 54 LIV 79 LXXIX 5 V 30 XXX 55 LV 80 LXXX 6 VI 31 XXXI 56 LVI 81 LXXXI 7 VII 32 XXXII 57 LVII 82 LXXXII 8 VIII 33 XXXIII 58 LVIII 83 LXXXIII 9 IX 34 XXXIV 59 LIX 84 LXXXIV 10 X 35 XXXV 60 LX 85 LXXXV 11 XI 36 XXXVI 61 LXI 86 LXXXVI 12 XII 37 XXXVII 62 LXII 87 LXXXVII 13 XIII 38 XXXVIII 63 LXIII 88 LXXXVIII 14 XIV 39 XXXIX 64 LXIV 89 LXXXIX 15 XV 40 XL 65 LXV 90 XC 16 XVI 41 XLI 66 LXVI 91 XCI 17 XVII 42 XLII 67 LXVII 92 XCII 18 XVIII 43 XLIII 68 LXVIII 93 XCIII 19 XIX 44 XLIV 69 LXIX 94 XCIV 20 XX 45 XLV 70 LXX 95 XCV 21 XXI 46 XLVI 71 LXXI 96 XCVI 22 XXII 47 XLVII 72 LXXII 97 XCVII 23 XXIII 48 XLVIII 73 LXXIII 98 XCVIII 24 XXIV 49 XLIX 74 LXXIV 99 XCIX 25 XXV 100 C

Each symbol represents a fixed value, and these symbols are combined to make different numbers.

## Chapter 2: Understanding the Roman Numerals Chart

A Roman numerals chart is a helpful tool to understand how these numbers work. It shows the numbers from 1 to 100 or more, using Roman numbers. Here’s a simple chart to get you started:

1 – I

2 – II

3 – III

4 – IV

5 – V

6 – VI

7 – VII

8 – VIII

9 – IX

10 – X

Notice something interesting? To make 4 (IV), you put I before V. This is because, in Roman numbers, placing a smaller numeral before a larger one means you subtract it. So, IV is 5 minus 1, which equals 4.

## Chapter 3: Rules of Roman Numbers

To become a Roman numbers whiz, you need to remember a few rules:

1. Repeated Numbers: You can repeat a numeral up to three times to add its value. For example, III is 3 (1+1+1).
1. Subtraction Rule: As seen in IV (4), placing a smaller numeral before a larger one means subtracting. IX means 10 minus 1, which is 9.
1. Addition Rule: If a numeral is placed after a larger or equal numeral, you add its value. For instance, VI is 6 (5+1).
1. Don’t Repeat More Than Three Times: A symbol shouldn’t be repeated more than three times in a row. So, 4 isn’t IIII, but IV.

## Chapter 4: Roman Numbers in Maths

Roman numbers can be fun to use in maths! They help us understand the value of numbers and improve our problem-solving skills. You can practice adding or subtracting Roman numbers. For example, what is VII (7) plus III (3)? It’s X (10)!

Another interesting thing about Roman numbers in maths is how they show us different ways to think about numbers. While our usual Arabic numbers are more straightforward for calculations, Roman numbers offer a different perspective and challenge.

## Chapter 5: Converting Roman Numbers to Numbers

Converting Roman numbers to numbers is a process that requires understanding the basic symbols and applying a few simple rules. Here’s a guide to help you convert Roman numbers into our more familiar Arabic numbers:

### 1. Know the Basic Symbols

Firstly, you should be familiar with the basic Roman numeral symbols and their corresponding values:

I = 1

V = 5

X = 10

L = 50

C = 100

D = 500

M = 1000

### 2. Add or Subtract Values

Roman numbers are written by combining these symbols and applying addition or subtraction rules:

Addition: If a symbol is followed by one of equal or lesser value, add the values. For example, in “VI” (6), you add V (5) and I (1).

Subtraction: If a symbol is followed by one of greater value, subtract the first from the second. For example, in “IV” (4), you subtract I (1) from V (5).

### 3. Start from the Left

Begin at the leftmost symbol and work your way right, applying these rules. If you encounter a smaller numeral followed by a larger numeral, remember to subtract; otherwise, keep adding the values.

### 4. Combine the Values

As you move through the numeral, combine the values as per the addition or subtraction rules. The total of these combined values gives you the number in Arabic numerals.

Example Conversions

Example 1: Convert “XII”

Breakdown: X (10) + I (1) + I (1)

Calculation: 10 + 1 + 1 = 12

“XII” = 12

Example 2: Convert “XLIV”

Breakdown: XL (40) + IV (4)

Calculation: 40 + 4 = 44

“XLIV” = 44

Example 3: Convert “MCMXC”

Breakdown: M (1000) + CM (900) + XC (90)

Calculation: 1000 + 900 + 90 = 1990

“MCMXC” = 1990

## Chapter 6: The Roman Numeral System in Everyday Life

Even though Roman numbers are ancient, they are still used today. You can find them on clocks, in books to number chapters, and to mark important dates or events. For instance, the year 2022 is written as MMXXII in Roman numbers.

Remember, the Roman numeral system is not just a way to write numbers; it’s a link to a rich historical past. Whether you’re looking at a clock, reading a book, or exploring maths problems, Roman numbers offer a unique and fascinating way to connect with history. EuroSchool offers an engaging, comprehensive maths curriculum blending theory and practical applications.