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Hand Foot And ​Mouth Disease: ​Causes, Symptoms, Prevention

foot and mouth disease treatment

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness that predominantly affects infants and young children. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of HFMD, including its causes, symptoms, and preventive measures.

Causes of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

HFMD is primarily caused by the Enterovirus, most commonly the Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71. These viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through various means, including person-to-person contact, contact with contaminated surfaces, and the ingestion of respiratory droplets. The virus is particularly prevalent in crowded environments such as childcare centres, preschools, and schools.

Also Read: Baby’s Skin Rash – Causes, Treatment & Prevention Tips

Symptoms of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

The incubation period for HFMD is typically three to six days, after which symptoms may begin to manifest. The most common symptoms include:

Fever: HFMD often starts with a high fever, which can be the first sign that a child is infected. The fever may be accompanied by general malaise and a lack of appetite.

Sore Throat: Children with HFMD may experience a sore throat, which can contribute to difficulty in swallowing and irritability.

Skin Rash: One of the hallmark symptoms of HFMD is the appearance of a red rash. This rash often develops as small, painful sores or blisters on the hands, feet, and sometimes the buttocks. The rash may progress to ulcers, causing discomfort for the affected child.

Mouth Sores: Painful sores can also develop inside the mouth, on the tongue, gums, and inner cheeks. These sores can make eating and drinking uncomfortable for the child.

Irritability: Due to the discomfort caused by fever, skin rash, and mouth sores, children with HFMD may become irritable and fussy.

It is crucial to note that not all individuals infected with the virus will exhibit all these symptoms, and the severity of symptoms can vary widely. In some cases, individuals, especially adults, may carry the virus without showing any symptoms.

Also Read: Baby Gasping for Air – Causes, Symptoms, And Ways to Reduce It

Prevention of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Preventing the spread of HFMD is essential, especially in settings where children are in close contact with each other. Here are key preventive measures:

Hand Hygiene

  • Handwashing: Encourage regular handwashing with soap and water, particularly after using the toilet, changing diapers, and before eating. Proper handwashing can significantly reduce the risk of infection.
  • Hand Sanitisers: In situations where soap and water are not readily available, the use of alcohol-based hand sanitisers can be an effective alternative.

Personal Hygiene

  • Avoid Close Contact: Limit close contact with individuals who are infected with HFMD. This includes avoiding hugging, kissing, and shaking hands with an infected person.
  • Personal Items: Discourage the sharing of personal items such as utensils, towels, and toys, which can contribute to the transmission of the virus.

Environmental Hygiene

  • Cleaning and Disinfecting: Regularly clean and disinfect frequently-touched surfaces and objects, such as toys, doorknobs, and countertops. The virus can survive on surfaces for an extended period, making proper hygiene crucial.

Isolation and Quarantine

  • Stay at Home: Individuals who are infected with HFMD, especially children, should stay at home until they are no longer contagious. This helps prevent the spread of the virus to others in communal settings.

Good Respiratory Hygiene

  • Cough and Sneezing Etiquette: Teach children to cover their mouth and nose with a tissue or their elbow when coughing or sneezing. Proper disposal of tissues and immediate handwashing can further reduce the risk of virus transmission.


  • No Specific Vaccine: Currently, there is no specific vaccine for HFMD. However, good overall hygiene practices and preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of infection.

Awareness and Education

  • Promote Awareness: Educate parents, caregivers, and childcare providers about the symptoms of HFMD and the importance of prompt medical attention if a child shows signs of the disease.
  • Early Recognition: Early recognition of symptoms can help in implementing preventive measures and reducing the risk of further transmission.

Also Read: Paediatric Bone Health: Role of nutrition in ensuring strong bone development

Treatment of Hand-Foot-And-Mouth Disease

Here are key aspects of the treatment for HFMD:

  • Symptomatic Relief: Fever Management: Over-the-counter fever-reducing medications such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen can be used to alleviate fever and discomfort. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage guidelines and consult a healthcare professional, especially when administering medication to children.
  • Pain Relief: Topical oral analgesics or analgesic mouthwashes may be recommended to alleviate the pain associated with mouth sores. Avoid acidic or spicy foods that can irritate mouth sores.
  • Hydration: Ensure adequate fluid intake to prevent dehydration, especially if the child is experiencing difficulty swallowing due to mouth sores. Offer water, clear soups, and electrolyte solutions to maintain hydration levels.
  • Nutrition: Provide a soft, bland diet that is easy to swallow. Avoid acidic, spicy, or salty foods that may exacerbate mouth discomfort. Cold foods, such as ice cream or popsicles, can be soothing for the mouth.
  • Rest: Encourage sufficient rest to support the body’s natural healing process and to help combat fatigue associated with the illness.
  • Isolation: Individuals with HFMD, especially children, should be isolated from others to prevent the spread of the virus. This includes staying at home until the symptoms resolve and they are no longer contagious.
  • Consultation with Healthcare Professionals: Seek medical advice if the symptoms are severe, if there are signs of dehydration (such as decreased urine output, dry mouth, or lethargy), or if complications arise. Complications of HFMD are rare but can include viral meningitis or encephalitis.
  • Antiviral Medications: In most cases, antiviral medications are not prescribed for HFMD, as the illness is caused by a virus, and antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections. However, in severe cases or cases with complications, a healthcare professional may consider antiviral treatment.
  • Follow-Up Care: Attend follow-up appointments as recommended by healthcare professionals to monitor the progress of recovery and address any lingering symptoms or concerns.

Also Read: Children’s Illnesses: Which Ones Are Contagious?

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